Some of The Most Important SQL Commands

SQL is a standard language for accessing and manipulating databases.
  • SQL can execute queries against a database
  • SQL can retrieve, insert, update, delete data from a database
  • SQL can create new databases
  • SQL can create new tables in a database
  • SQL can create stored procedures in a database
  • SQL can create views in a database
  • SQL can set permissions on tables, procedures, and views

SQL Command

Basic SQL Query is as follows:


To Select Particular Column in table.
  1. SELECT "column_name" FROM "table_name"


Find Distinct Column in table.
  1. SELECT DISTINCT "column_name" FROM "table_name"


Select Column in table using where condition.
  1. SELECT "column_name" FROM "table_name" WHERE "condition"


Add And/Or condition and find record in table.
  1. SELECT "column_name" FROM "table_name"
  2. WHERE "simple condition" {[AND|OR"simple condition"}

Create Table

Create table using below query.
  1. CREATE TABLE "table_name"
  2. ("column 1" "data type of column 1" [column 1 constraint(s)],
  3. "column 2" "data type of column 2" [column 2 constraint(s)] )

Insert Into

Insert Record in table using below value.
  1. INSERT INTO "table_name" ("column1""column2", ...)
  2. VALUES ("value1""value2", ...)


Select Date in SQL
  1. Select GETDATE()  -- Current date with  time 
  2. Select CURDATE() -- Current date 
  3. Select CURTIME()  -- Current time 

Insert Into

Using insert into we can insert one table Column to another table as per the below syntax.
  1. INSERT INTO "table1" ("column1""column2", ...)
  2. SELECT "column3""column4” FROM "table2"


Update column in table using where condition.
  1. UPDATE "table_name"
  2. SET "column_1" = [new value], "column_2" = [new value]
  3. WHERE "condition"


Delete column in table using where condition.
  1. DELETE FROM "table_name" WHERE "condition"

Drop Table Statement

  1. DROP TABLE "table_name"

Truncate Table Statement

  1. TRUNCATE TABLE "table_name"

Alter Table Query

Sometimes we need to alter table definition (alter Column,add column,Add index,etc.). We can do this using the below syntax:

Add Column

  1. ALTER TABLE "table_name"
  2. ADD "column_name" "Data Type"

Modify or Alter Column

  1. ALTER TABLE "table_name"
  2. ALTER COLUMN "column_name" "New Data Type"

Rename Column

  1. ALTER TABLE "table_name"
  2. RENAME COLUMN "column 1" TO "column 2"

Drop Column

  1. ALTER TABLE "table_name"
  2. DROP COLUMN "column_name"

Index : We can create Index on Table to faster retrieval of Record.

There are two types of Indexes in SQL:
Unique Index
Non-Clustered Index
Create Index
  1. Create index index_name
  2. on table_name(column1,column2)

Create Unique Index

  1. Create unique index index_name
  2. on table_name (column1,column2)

Add Index

  1. ALTER TABLE "table_name"
  2. ADD INDEX "index_name" (column_name)

Drop Index

  1. ALTER TABLE "table_name"
  2. DROP INDEX "index_name"

Add Constraint

  1. ALTER TABLE "table_name"
  1. ALTER TABLE Customer
  2. ADD CONSTRAINT Con_First UNIQUE (Address)

Drop Constraint

  1. ALTER TABLE "table_name"
  1. ALTER TABLE Customer

Copy Table Structure from one table to another(For all Columns),

  1. Select Top 0 * into newtable from Oldtable
  2. Select * into newtable from oldtable where 1=2
  3. Create table newtable as select * from oldtable where 0=1

Copy Table Structure from one table to another(For Some Columns),

  1. Select Top 0 col1, col2, col3 into newtable from oldtable

Copy Structure with Data:

  1. select * into newtable from oldtable
  2. select * into newtable from oldtable where 1=1
  3. Create table newtable as select * from oldtable

If you already have a table with same structure and you want to just copy data,

  1. Insert into newtable select * from oldtable

Copy table from another database,

  1. select * into newtablename from databasename.oldtablename


In Sql there are different functions to find max, min , count, etc.Syntax for that is as follows :


  1. Select max(column_name) from table_name where Condition


  1. Select min(column_name) from table_name where condition


  1. Select count(column_name) from table_name where condition


  1. Select Avg(column_name) from table_name where condition


  1. Select Sum(column_name) from table_name where condition


  1. SELECT "column_name" FROM "table_name"
  2. WHERE "column_name" LIKE '%a%'

a% : Start with A

%a : end with a

%aa% : Contain aa in word

a_%_% : start with a and 3 characters in length

a%o: Start with a and end with o

In (behave like multiple or clause)

  1. select "column_name" FROM "table_name"
  2. WHERE "column_name" IN ('value1''value2'.)
  1. select "column_name" FROM "table_name"
  2. WHERE "column_name" IN (select column_name from table_name) --combined two table result
  1. select "column_name" FROM "table_name" WHERE "column_name"
  2. BETWEEN 'value1' AND 'value2'

Order By

By default ascending order.
  1. select "column_name" FROM "table_name" [WHERE "condition"]
  2. ORDER BY "column_name" [ASCDESC]

Group By

Group by clause is a must when we use aggregate function in select query for a column which is not used in aggregate function.
  1. select "column_name1"SUM("column_name2"FROM "table_name"
  2. GROUP BY "column_name1"


  1. select "column_name1", [Function("column_name2")] FROM "table_name"
  2. [GROUP BY "column_name1"]
  3. HAVING (arithematic function condition)


union eliminates command record in both table and number of columns. For both, union table must be the same.
  1. Select column_name1,column_nme2 from table_name1  
  2. UNION  
  3. Select column_name1,column_nme2 from table_name2  


Union all selects all records in a table including command record and number of columns.  In both, table must be the same

  1. Select column_name1,column_nme2 from table_name1
  2. UNION all
  3. Select column_name1,column_nme2 from table_name2
Self Join
  1. select column_name from table t1, table t2
  2. Where condition

Exists Operator

Select the second sub query record which exists in the first select record.
  1. Select column_name from table_name where Exists
  2. (select Column_name from table_name1 where condition)
  1. Select column_name from table_name where NOT Exists
  2. (select Column_name from table_name1 where condition)
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